therapeutic effect, use, dosage
The medicinal properties of cannabis have been known to us for thousands of years. However, the current market situation related to the increased interest in the subject of CBD and THC have caused that other cannabinoids and their derivatives are off the radar. In this unequal fight for attention, we decided to take the side of those underrated substances to shed a little more light on the variety within the cannabinoid family.
What is CBG
The synthesis of CBG
The mother of all cannabinoids; a stem cell. There would be nothing without ... CBG. Cannabigerol is, so far, one of the less well-known cannabinoids. Its history begins in the 1960s, when it was first identified by a group of scientists headed by Y.Gaoni. Since then, CBG has remained veiled in mystery, and there is much speculation over its true properties. One thing, however, remains certain. We owe the entire spectrum of cannabinoids to CBG; all other cannabinoids are synthesized from cannabigerol, including the well-known CBD and THC.
The process is quite simple; cannabis plants produce cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which becomes a precursor for the three main cannabinoid lines, including tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA). Then, the special enzymes found in the plant break down the CBGA and direct it towards one of these lines. During exposure to ultraviolet radiation and heat, acid is transformed into other substances, including CBD and THC.
The production of CBG
Up to this point, everything seems quite straightforward. Problems begin when we want to extract only CBG from cannabis. Because cannabigerol gives rise to other cannabinoids, planters face a very important decision. Usually, in such a situation, there are two options: obtaining CBG from a young plant that has not yet been able to process a significant amount of CBG into other cannabinoids, and thereby giving up the extraction of other substances, or extraction from a mature plant in which the synthesis process will have significantly reduced the content of CBG, but the amount of other cannabinoids is proportionally larger.
The processing and production of pure CBG according to the first solution leads to the resignation from production of other substances, turning the entire crop upside down.
The second proposal is, unfortunately, so uneconomical that it would have forced producers to create much larger amounts of biomass to obtain the same amount of pure CBG as other cannabinoids.
Therefore, the stalemate of this situation leads to one thing - the huge costs associated with the production of pure cannabigerol. That is why this substance is often called a “Rolls Royce” among cannabinoids. In these circumstances, one way to combat production costs is to invest in plants with high CBG genetic efficiency. In this direction, attempts are being made in the USA to create a strain containing more than 10% CBG, which would significantly improve the situation in the CBG market.
CBG and CBD - similarities and differences
Comparing CBG and CBD, we can conclude that more things combine these substances than divide them. Although chemically, CBG and CBD are different compounds, CBG conditions CBD in cannabis. Both CBG and CBD are now considered non-intoxicating, which means that they will not change your state of mind in a way that could disturb your daily functioning and mental clarity. Like CBD, CBG can eliminate the intoxicating effects of THC. Research on CBG seems to show that cannabigerol activates the CB1 receptor in the same way as CBD, which significantly reduces the THC narcotic effect.
Therapeutic use of CBG
Properties of CBG
Cannabigerol works by interacting with the endocannabinoid system. Together, CB1 and CB2 receptors regulate neurohormones that actively influence physiological processes, including mood, metabolism, pain response, and appetite. When cannabinoids such as CBG interact with these receptors, physiological changes occur. Then, CBG may have the following properties:
- Anti-inflammatory in inflammatory bowel disease
- Neuroprotective - According to research done on mice, CBG appears to protect neurons in Huntington's disease, which is classified as a neurodegenerative disease.
- Cancer-fighting - CBG may be able to limit the growth of cancer cells. A 2014 study found that cannabigerol slowed the growth of colon cancer cells in mice.
- Anti-bacterial - CBG can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that cause staph infection.
- Mood-boosting - CBG can increase the production of anandamide, which is considered a “bliss molecule”.
- Cytotoxic - in epithelial cancer.
CBG in therapies for diseases
Besides, CBG can also effectively:
- Solve bladder problems - Cannabigerol reduces cramps in the human bladder, bringing relief.
- Help treat glaucoma - According to research, CBG improves fluid drainage in the eye, which has a positive effect on reducing intraocular pressure.
- Influence eating disorders - According to research published in 2016, CBG is the cannabinoid responsible for increasing appetite, which can be useful in the fight against eating disorders.
- Combats the side effects of other therapies
The future of CBG on the market
So, what does the future for CBG look like? Ongoing CBG research is providing many promising results in a variety of therapies. However, the specificity of the production of this substance may limit its therapeutic use. Fortunately, we have recently obtained cannabis chemotypes in which the appropriate enzymes have been eliminated. Thanks to this the spectrum of cannabigerol application can soon be expanded.